White Papers/Application Notes

Using Metrology to Measure and Enhance the Performance of a Positioning System

This white paper will explain what positioning system metrology is, why it is important, how to conduct metrology and how to make use of the results. Metrology is conducted to ensure that a designer’s positioning system meets a set of required specifications once it is mechanically built. The following material will be geared towards precision motorized positioners under closed loop control.

Improving Automation Performance

At some point automation hardware inevitably becomes obsolete. It’s hard to know exactly when to retrofit or redesign, but there are indications that cannot be ignored. Quite simply, when the system’s tolerances and throughput can no longer meet market demand, it is time to upgrade.

The Difference Between: Stage-on-Granite and Integrated Granite Motion Systems

The selection of the most suitable granite-based linear motion platform for a given application depends on a host of factors and variables. It is crucial to recognize that each and every application has its own unique set of requirements that must be understood and prioritized in order to pursue an effective solution in terms of a motion platform.

Nanometer Scale Industrial Automation for Optical Device Manufacturing

Manufacturers of optical devices know the importance of mature industrialized processes built around the cost savings of automation. These processes have made manufacturing optical devices economical in a number of speed and bandwidth-sensitive markets such as data communications, telecommunications, and commercial sensing. The technology that goes into these devices is constantly evolving to meet the future needs of these markets, and this forces product manufacturing practices to follow suit.

How to Select Optimal Positioning Equipment for Laser Direct- Write Processes

Choosing the optimal automation equipment for a given process requires a thorough understanding of the process parameters and the effects of positioning errors on the results. Recent advances in laser direct-write applications provide an excellent example of selecting the optimal positioning equipment based on process parameters.

Estimating Combined Servo and Galvo Motion Accuracy

In modern motion control systems, the primary figure of merit is often the global accuracy that may be achieved on the workpiece surface. However, when configuring the motion control architecture for more advanced features, such as Infinite Field of View (IFOV), characterizing each element of the systemic errors can be very challenging. This white paper details how to characterize the constituent error elements and suggests a means of predicting overall system errors for IFOV-enabled motion control platforms.

Automation1 Servo Drives Improve In-Position Stability

Servo motor drives can be measured in many ways. When it comes to performance, few tests are more meaningful to system performance than in-position stability. In-position tests show how well the drive can hold a motor or stage in a target position without drift or jitter.

New Data Collection Tool for Complex Positioning Systems at Beamlines

Maximizing measurement throughput is paramount in scientific and industrial applications alike, which is certainly the case with beamline and synchrotron facilities. Beamline and synchrotron facilities allot time to users with the understanding that users will collect all of their data in a given period. A hindrance to this was the slow data collection process implemented at many of these facilities, and this meant allocating more time to each user. What if the data collection process was faster? What if samples and chemical reactions could be measured on the fly while the data collection was instantaneously triggered in the background? Aerotech developed a tool for these cases, and it collects more data with more throughput on even the most complicated sample manipulation platforms.

Part-Speed Position Synchronized Output

Part-Speed Position Synchronized Output (PSO) is a new tracking mode for Aerotech’s PSO advanced controller feature. Part-Speed PSO commands high-speed, low latency output pulses based on the commanded vector velocity.

Aerotech 全新雷射觸發控制技術 – Part Speed PSO

Part-Speed Position Synchronized Output (Part-Speed PSO) 是一種全新的雷射觸發控制技術,相對於已經於雷射產業應用多年的位置同步輸出技術,Part-Speed PSO 可以基於向量速度進行超低延遲時間, 高即時性, 高速度的位置同步輸出.

Implementation of the Enhanced Throughput Module (ETM) to Improve Machine Throughput

Due to the continuously increasing demand for consumer electronics, electronic equipment manufacturers are pushing the throughput limits of the equipment they build. UPH (unit per hour) is being challenged every time there is a new manufacturing machine developed. In this Application Note, Aerotech used our Enhanced Throughput Module (ETM) to reduce move and settle time and maximize throughput on a machine without changing the mechanical structure or the machine base design.

Implementation of Enhanced Throughput Module (ETM) to improve machine throughput 使用 ETM 模組大幅度提升機台產能


Customized Relationships and Coordinated Motion with AXISSTATUSFAST

The A3200 motion controller has the powerful ability to program custom functional relationships and complex kinematic transformations directly into the motion engine. This capability is explored through an example of tracking a spherical surface with a Z axis while commanding only X and Y motion.

Advanced Motion Control for Durability, Part Characterization and Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA)

Traditionally Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA) applications use servo-hydraulic solutions – actuators and controls. Lately interest has been noted in using electric actuators and servo controllers to provide characterizations not possible with servo-hydraulic solutions, in addition to the “green” factor that electric solutions provide. This white paper reviews technologies used to produce motion and exert forces on a test specimen using Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA) and related testing applications.

Granite-Based Motion Platforms: A Mechanical-Bearing Case Study

The selection of the most suitable granite-based linear motion platform for a given application depends on a host of factors and variables. It is crucial to recognize that each and every application has its own unique set of requirements that must be understood and prioritized in order to pursue an effective solution in terms of a motion platform. Many motion systems suppliers appreciate this, and consequently offer a variety of motion platform options for their clients.

A3200 Product Feature Highlight: Position Synchronized Output (PSO)

In industrial processes, laser pulses are traditionally triggered temporally. However, time domain spacing produces inherent laser processing challenges when motion systems depart from continuous velocity operation. Aerotech’s Position Synchronized Output (PSO) feature alleviates these problems by enabling the user to control laser pulses in the spatial domain.

Optimized Mechatronics for Silicon Photonics Alignments

In the rapidly growing realm of silicon photonics, precision alignment of optical components is a crucial part of the fabrication process. If a fiber-optic component is misaligned, this misalignment can prevent the device from functioning properly. Signal strength can be reduced by multiple dBs with just a single micron of misalignment, so having equipment capable of quickly and consistently performing high-precision alignments is critical for manufacturers of fiber optics and silicon photonics devices. Linear alignments are typically the most crucial in these processes, but angular alignment precision can also be very important.

Line Following in the Packaging Industry

There are many variations of line following applications within the packaging industry including labeling, cut-to-length, fly cutting, lane diversion, rotary knife, and many others. All of these line following applications have the same machine functions at their core. Commonly there is an independent moving line with feedback for measuring line speed. This feedback signal is input to the motion controller through an auxiliary encoder input. The motion controller then uses this auxiliary encoder input as the commanded speed, while it controls another axis called either a “slave” or “follower” axis to move at the same speed as the line. The relationship between line speed and follower speed could be a one-to-one ratio or some other function.

Line Following in the Packaging Industry (產線包裝產業)

有許多產線包裝應用,包含貼標機,定尺寸切割,飛剪,追剪,分條,刀具旋轉等許多商業應用。這些產線應用都有相同機器功能程式。這些機台中有一個很大的共通點,也就是他們通常地會有一個獨立移動線量測線速度做回饋。這個回授訊號輸入透過輔助編碼器輸入到運動控制器。然後運動控制器使用輔助編碼器輸入如控制命令,當它控制其他次軸或追隨軸移動到相同的速度。線速度與追隨速度可以為一比一比例 或 “其他功能或比例”。

Motion Control with Precision Noncontact Displacement Sensors

Noncontact displacement sensors are used in measurement applications where surfaces or processes do not allow contact and demand high precision. Technologies such as capacitive, confocal, eddy-current, and laser triangulation sensors have proven themselves in applications that incorporate motion systems.

Aerotech’s EasyTune Advanced Autotuning Tool

EasyTune® is the most advanced autotuning tool available in a commercial motion controller. EasyTune was extensively tested and refined on different motion systems to reduce settling in order to enhanced your machine’s throughput. It allows non-control system users to complete system tuning quickly and easily.

Using the A3200 ROTATION Command for Five Axis Systems

The ROTATION command in the Automation 3200 (A3200) implements a rotation matrix operation. The function can be used to transform coordinates on mechanical actuators that include rotary motion. Multiple ROTATION commands can be configured to work with systems that have more than one rotary axis. A five‐axis system consisting of two rotary axes and three linear axes is an example of such a system. This application note will discuss the process of setting‐up the ROTATION command for this type of application.

Synchronizing Position Synchronized Output (PSO) with Mode Locked Lasers

Many lasers are limited to firing pulses based on an internal clock source and cannot be asynchronously triggered from an external signal such as from Aerotech’s Position Synchronized Output (PSO) feature. Aerotech has added the ability to synchronize the start of the PSO output pulse with the laser clock signal.

Enhanced Tracking Control (ETC)

Aerotech's unique Enhanced Tracking Control (ETC) feature improves move-and-settle times in point-to-point positioning and reduces tracking errors during contoured motion.

Technical Note: Piezo Controller Thermal Stability Comparison

Piezo controller design can have a significant effect on thermal stability causing excessive error in precision motion applications. In this technical note, we briefly describe some techniques used for controlling thermal effects and compare the thermal stability of our piezo control electronics with a competitive design.

Laser Raster-Scanning Patterns on Cylindrical Workpieces Using CADFusion and PSO Bitmap Tools

A large number of cylindrical laser processing applications program the laser writing campaign as if the two axes (one linear and one rotary) are both, in fact, linear in nature. In other words, the cylindrical pattern is “unrolled” to make the shape a more typical flat workpiece. While this technique might ease the motion control programming burden, often the resulting pattern cycle time suffers due to the many directional changes the rotary axis (in particular) must undergo during laser processing. Alternatively, “free-running” the rotary axis in a constant direction and raster-scanning the required pattern using high-dynamic galvanometers is a better and far more time-efficient means of writing the same pattern to the cylindrical workpiece.

High-Bandwidth Force Control

Traditionally linear stages are used with encoders to position to precise points in a motion profile. These encoders are used for both positioning and, in the case of brushless servomotors, for motor commutation as well. However, in certain applications like material press-bonding, position is not as important as force. When binding two materials together, if a position is the target, the force applied while bonding can vary significantly. Part thickness, amount of epoxy, and stage backlash can combine to produce more or less force applied than is necessary for a complete and successful bonding process. If a force can be used in place of "position" at the servo-loop level, we can be assured of the same amount of force being applied cycle after cycle, regardless of part tolerances, to create a more uniform and successful bonding result.

Machine Positioning Uncertainty with Laser Interferometer Feedback

The purpose of this discussion is to explain the major contributors to machine positioning uncertainty in systems with laser interferometer feedback near the work point. We will use an example to quantify these uncertainties in a real implementation of a laser-feedback-driven machine.