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How to Manipulate Objects in Six Degrees of Freedom with Hexapods

Hexapods are incredibly useful tools for manipulating objects in six degrees of freedom. As the name suggests, a hexapod is a robot featuring six independently controlled struts that are coordinated to move an object in six degrees of freedom. Those familiar with robotics will know that an object’s position and orientation in space can be…

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The Basics of Scanner Field of View and Strategies for Improving It

You’ve decided your process requires the speed and precision of a galvanometer-based laser scanner and you’re faced with determining which field of view your application will require. Many questions may come to mind, including: “What is a field of view?” “How will my laser and optical equipment affect my field of view?” “Which strategies exist…

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Metal Additive Manufacturing

The State of the Industry Metal additive manufacturing holds tremendous promise in how it will enable the production of components that were previously cost prohibitive or could not be produced with conventional manufacturing processes. As a result, industry and academia are making a concerted effort to further the development of metal additive processes. An increasing…

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Estimating Combined Servo and Galvo Motion Accuracy

In modern motion control systems, the primary figure of merit is often the global accuracy that may be achieved on the workpiece surface. However, when configuring the motion control architecture for more advanced features, such as Infinite Field of View (IFOV), characterizing each element of the systemic errors can be very challenging. This white paper…

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The Difference Between Stage-on-Granite and Integrated Granite Motion Systems

The selection of the most suitable granite-based linear motion platform for a given application depends on a host of factors and variables. It is crucial to recognize that each and every application has its own unique set of requirements that must be understood and prioritized in order to pursue an effective solution in terms of…

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Machine Positioning Uncertainty with Laser Interferometer Feedback

The purpose of this discussion is to explain the major contributors to machine positioning uncertainty in systems with laser interferometer feedback near the work point. We will use an example to quantify these uncertainties in a real implementation of a laser-feedback-driven machine. Laser interferometers are used as a measurement reference for machine correction and accuracy…

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Advanced Motion Control Optimizes Laser Micro-Drilling

In micro-drilling process equipment, the most popular ways to create microvias (blind or buried vias with a diameter ≤150 µm) are mechanical drilling and laser drilling. Mechanical drilling is mainly used in larger apertures such as PCBs or IC substrates. Laser drilling is mainly used in finer apertures such as silicon wafers, ceramic substrates, and…

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Minimum Incremental Motion and Holding Stability in Beamline Positioning

Background Many beamline applications such as X-ray microscopy and Computed Tomography (CT) require positioning of samples, detectors, and optics in order to perform measurements. Microscopy applications often require imaging of the structure of matter at the sub-micrometer and even nanometer level. Good holding stability, both short-term and long-term, is required because movement of the sample…

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Laser Raster-Scanning Patterns on Cylindrical Workpieces Using CADFusion and PSO Bitmap Tools

A large number of cylindrical laser processing applications program the laser writing campaign as if the two axes (one linear and one rotary) are both, in fact, linear in nature. In other words, the cylindrical pattern is “unrolled” to make the shape a more typical flat workpiece. While this technique might ease the motion control…

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Harmonic Cancellation Algorithms Enable Precision Motion Control

The internal model principle of control theory states that algorithms designed to perfectly reject input signals must contain a model of that input. Feedback control that adheres to this internal model principle has led to the development of harmonic cancellation algorithms and even more complex repetitive controllers. How Are They Useful? Periodic disturbances are commonplace…

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